13 AI 26.982

Aluminium

An in depth guide

metals4U stock an extensive range of aluminium products in a wide choice of grades and profiles. The grades we stock are 6082, 6082 T6, 6063, 1050A-H14, 5754-H111 and EN AW-5449A which are available in the following profile presentations;

Angle, angle stair edging, nosing section, z section, round rod/bar square, T section, flat, box, tube, flat, channel, moulding, wall board lining section, sheet, stucco sheet, treadbrite/propeller plate, 5- bar tread plate and telescopic tube. These products are all available in mill finish, with some products being available in bright polish, brushed polish and anodised satin finish presentations.

Aluminium

Aluminium is produced from the ore, Bauxite. The bauxite is made into alumina powder and is then smelted at a high temperature to produce aluminium metal. Aluminium is fully recyclable without losing its properties or qualities, even with repeated recycling sequences. Aluminium is the most plentiful metal on earth; it is lightweight it has a low density, is non-toxic, has high thermal and electrical conductivity and does not spark. Aluminium contains no iron (Fe) so is not magnetisable, but it is paramagnetic. Aluminium will be weakly attracted to an externally applied magnetic field, however, this will not be maintained once this field is removed; no magnetism will remain.

It has a smooth surface and is simple to cast, machine and form.

Aluminium is categorised in series of 1000s to help choose the most appropriate series for your project. The first number of the aluminium grade refers to the alloying element. Within each series there are several grades that have differing properties depending on the chemical composition of that individual grade. Letters and numbers stated after the grade number refer to the type of temper or hardening completed during manufacture.

Aluminium grades can be further classified into non heat treatable and heat treatable series. The 1000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 series are mainly non-heat treatable, although the addition of magnesium and copper in some of the 4000 series silicon alloys make some of that grade heat treatable. Series 2000, 6000 and 7000 are heat treatable.

The non-heat treatable aluminium grades are hardened by cold working and forming, although the area adjacent to the weld zone will in effect become heat annealed but this unavoidable. The heat treatable grades are hardened by using elevated thermal treatment, quenching and if applicable, precipitation heat treatment, also known as artificial aging.

Grades of Aluminium

The 1000 series is the purest of all commercial aluminium alloys with a minimum aluminium content of 99%. This series offers extremely high corrosion resistance with high thermal and electrical conductivity, excellent workability, and low mechanical properties.

The 2000 series of aluminium uses copper as the main alloying element. The 2000 series is renowned for its high performance and excellent strength through a broad range of temperatures. Once solution heat treated, this series of aluminium provides similar mechanical properties to mild steel, making it particularly suitable for aviation and aeronautical applications.

The 3000 series of aluminium are alloyed with manganese; this offers a moderate strength product with good corrosion resistance. 3000 series aluminium can be used at higher temperatures than other series and has good formability. This aluminium/manganese alloy is used for general applications from domestic kitchen equipment manufacture to power plant heat exchangers.

The 4000 Series contains silicon as its alloying element to give it a very low melting point, this gives it excellent properties for using in casting, welding wires, construction panels and extruded products.

The 5000 series of aluminium is alloyed with magnesium and manganese to make it a high strength, non-heat treatable aluminium alloy. This series has very good weldability and good corrosion resistance in marine environments.

The 6000 series is alloyed with manganese and silicon which forms the inorganic compound, magnesium silicide. The magnesium silicide makes this series of aluminium heat treatable. Although the 6000 series of aluminium does not offer the strength properties of the 2000 or 7000 series, it is one of the most versatile aluminium alloys with good formability, medium strength, and good corrosion resistance.

The 7000 series contains the highest strength aluminium alloys available commercially. This series is alloyed mainly with zinc and a small amount of magnesium which enables it to be precipitation hardened. This series is used in the aerospace, automotive and sports equipment manufacture industries due to its suitability to cope with the demands of high stress parts and airframes.

The 8000 series offers similar properties to the 1000 series but with higher strength, better formability, and improved stiffness. It is particularly suited to thin gauge applications. This series is alloyed with iron and nickel to improve strength without losing conductivity.

All grades of aluminium have good to very good corrosion resistance due to a thin layer of aluminium oxide that forms on the surface of the bare metal when it is exposed to the air, this prevents further oxidation. Aluminium is fully recyclable without losing any of its natural qualities.

Prolonged exposure to powdered aluminium or aluminium welding fumes have been reported as being hazardous to health, it is advised if you work with excessive amounts of either of these substances you use appropriate PPE and work within a well-ventilated area. Some users may be prone to contact dermatitis when handling aluminium products, again, appropriate PPE is advised for these individuals.

Aluminium is sensitive to heat, making some workshop processes more complicated; aluminium melts without glowing red hot first and the lower melting point makes it more susceptible to distortion from thermally induced stress relief, these stresses can be relieved and controlled during manufacture by heat treating in an oven, followed by gradual cooling-effectively annealing the stresses.

Cleaning aluminium

Aluminium can be cleaned in a variety of ways, as some alloys can be quite soft it is best to start with the least harsh method and move to harsher treatments only if absolutely necessary. Some abrasive cleaners can change the finish on polished aluminium or presentations with a grain, always use these cleaners gently and clean in the same direction as the grain. After it has been cleaned, wash thoroughly in clear water and dry to prevent streaking.

Recommended processes for cleaning aluminium in order of mildest to harshest.

  • Plain water
  • Mild soap / detergent
  • Solvents such as kerosene, turpentine, or white spirit
  • Non-etching chemical cleaner
  • Wax-based polish
  • Abrasive wax
  • Abrasive cleaner

If using proprietary chemical cleaners on aluminium that is used within a food preparation area, please do follow the instructions on the product packaging to ensure it is safe to use in such an environment.

Welding guide

Welding aluminium to Use filter wire type
Itself Sifmig 4043, sifalumin 27 5356, sif 555 solder, Hilco Aluminil Si 12, Hilco Aluminil Si 15, sifmig 1050, sifmig 5356, 5183
Mild steel Pre-coat mild steel with sif silver solder 40 or 43 then weld using sifalumin 15
Galvanised mild steel Grind away galvanised surface at weld point then Pre-coat mild steel with sif silversolder 40 or 43 then weld using sifalumin 15
Brass Hilco aluminil Si 12
Copper Hilco aluminil Si 12
Stainless steel Pre-coat stainless steel with sif silver solder 40 or 43 then weld using sifalumin 15
Bronze Sifphosphor bronze no 8
Cast iron Not applicable
Weldability Value
Gas Good
Arc Good
Resistance Good
Brazing Good
Soldering Good

The grades of aluminium

With so many grades of aluminium, here is a guide to each one to help you make the best choice for your project.

Grade 6082

6082 grade is the highest strength of the 6000 series of alloys. 6082 grade Aluminium conforms to BS EN 755-2: 2016 standard. It is classed as a structural alloy and has been seen to replace grade 6061 in many applications due to its high strength. The larger percentage of manganese used in its chemical composition controls the grain structure that results in producing a stronger material.

The T6 suffix is the classification for the type of temper, or degree of hardness, the aluminium has been prepared to during the manufacture process; it represents the metal has been solution heat-treated and artificially aged.

This grade of Aluminium is particularly suitable for the following uses;

  • Bridges
  • Cranes
  • Transport application
  • Skips
  • Barrels
  • Trusses

Properties

Physical Property Value
Density 2700 Kg/m3
Melting Point 555°C
Modulus of Elasticity 70 GPa
Electrical Resistance 0.38 μΩm
Thermal Conductivity 180W/m.K
Thermal Expansion 23.1 μm/m-k
Mechanical Property Value
Yield Strength 240 N/mm²
Tensile Strength 340 N/mm²
Proof Stress 0.2% 240 N/mm²
Shear Modulus 26 GPa
Hardness 104 Vickers - HV
Elongation  (in 200mm) 8%

The chemical composition (% weight )

Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicon Copper
0.40-1.0 0.0-0.50 0.60-1.2 0.70-1.3 0.0-0.10
Zinc Titanium Chromium Other Aluminium
0.0-0.2 0.0-0.1 0.0-0.25 0.15 max Balance

Machinability

6082 is the most commonly used grade for machining due to its very good machining properties. The T6 temper presentation produces tight coils of swarf when chip breakers are used. Both presentations of the grade are easily drilled at reasonably high machining speeds.

Formability

6082 grade aluminium can be easily formed using standard forming techniques such as rolling, extrusion, die, forging and stretch forming.

Cutting

Can be machine cut, heat cut or cut with a hacksaw or metal shears. The use of sawing coolant or stick wax applied to the saw blade to help with lubrication will improve the finish of the cut and enables cutting at a lower speed to reduce heat generation.

Welding

Before starting to weld aluminium, it is important to clean the base metal to remove any naturally occurring aluminium oxide and hydrocarbon contamination from oils or cutting solvents. Any aluminium oxide left on the surface will inhibit the penetration of the filler metal into the working piece, the oxide will melt at around 110°C while the base metal will melt at around 555°C. Use a stainless-steel brush to remove the oxide, gently working in one direction; care must be taken to not further embed the oxide into the surface by harsh brushing. Aluminium oxide can also be removed by using solvent or etching solution. Use a degreaser to remove any hydrocarbon contamination from oils or cutting solvents; it is important to check the degreaser you choose is hydrocarbon free.

Preheat the aluminium to reduce the risk of the weld cracking, the preheat should not exceed 110°C. Pushing the welding gun away from the weld puddle, rather than a ‘pulling’ action will ensure a better cleaning action, reduce weld contamination, and improve the shielding gas coverage.

Aluminium welding needs to be done ‘fast and hot’; the high thermal conductivity requires a hotter amperage and voltage settings combined with higher weld travel speeds; if the weld is too slow the low melting point of aluminium can lead to‘Burn-through’.Always select welding consumables with a similar melting point to the base metal. The closer the melting range of base metal and welding wire, the easier the weld process will be.

Annealing

The 6082-T6 grade is supplied in a pre-annealed form. If you are intending to use a 6082 grade for a structural application, it is worth considering purchasing 6082-T6.To anneal 6082-T6 grade aluminium during working, slowly heat to 412° C and maintain temperature for 2-3 hrs, followed by controlled cooling at 10°C per hour until reaching 260° C, then gently air cool.

An alternative way to anneal aluminium is to rub ‘bar’ soap or marker pen on the metal and apply heat until the soap turns black or the pen marks disappear- this is the point that it has annealed. This is best done carefully, remembering that aluminium does not glow red prior to melting.

Hardening

6082 grade aluminium can be work hardened by rolling, drawing, pressing, and stamping.This reduces ductility and increases strength. 6082-T6 is supplied already age hardened. Age hardening is done by holding aluminium at 177°C for around 8 hrs and then air cooling. Do not quench aluminium in cold water as it may lose its strength and gain brittleness.

To reduce distortion of aluminium castings and forgings or components made from sheet aluminium it is recommended to slow quench in water heated to 65-80°C or forced air blast.

Tempering

6082-T6 is supplied with category T6 temper that identifies it as being solution heat treated and artificially aged during manufacture. To temper standard 6082 grade, heat to 155°C -200° C and soak in water at room temperature for 1 hour per 25mm of thickness. Excessive soaking will nullify the benefits of protectively clad components and increase oxidation.

Corrosion resistance

This grade of aluminium has very good corrosion resistance. The naturally occurring surface oxides protect the metal from further oxidation.

Forging

6082-T6 forges well. Forging heat should remain within the parameters of 300-480°C. It can be cold forged but may become brittle if overworked.

Brazing

Can be brazed using torch, dip and furnace processes.

Process Rating
Workability - Cold Good
Machinability Very good
Weldability - Gas Good
Weldability - Arc Good
Weldability - Resistance Very good
Brazability Good

Forms available

6082-T6 is supplied in angle, angle stair edging, nosing section, z section, round rod/bar square, T section, flat, box and tube in a mill finish.

Flat, tube, angle, box is also available in a bright polish or brushed polish finish

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Grade 6063

6063 grade aluminium conforms to BS EN 573-3 2009 is not suitable for structural applications but is the most common general fabrication grade; it has a better surface finish than 6082 which makes it particularly well suited for use in architectural applications. This grade is supplied in both standard grade presentation and with a T6 temper.

It is suitable for the following applications;

  • Window frames
  • Doors
  • Shop fitting
  • Furniture
  • Balustrades
  • Architectural application
  • Irrigation tubing

Properties

Physical Property Value
Density 2700 Kg/m3
Melting Point 600°C
Modulus of Elasticity 69.5 GPa
Electrical Resistance 0.38 μΩm
Thermal Conductivity 200W/m.K
Thermal Expansion 23.5 μm/m-k
Mechanical Property Value
Yield Strength 214 N/mm²
Tensile Strength 195 N/mm²
Proof Stress 0.2% -
Shear Modulus 25.8 GPa
Hardness 83 Vickers - HV
Elongation  (in 200mm) 16% minimum

The chemical composition (% weight )

Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicon Copper
0.0-0.10 0.0-0.35 0.45-0.90 0.20-0.60 0.0-0.10
Zinc Titanium Chromium Other Aluminium
0.0-0.10 0.0-0.10 0.0-0.10 0.0-0.15 Balance

Machinability

6063 grade has average to good machinability and can be drilled at quite high speeds. As aluminium does not glow red before melting, it may be necessary to use a cooling system when machining to reduce the risk of spoilage.

Formability

This grade of aluminium can be hot and cold formed with good results

Ductility

Standard grade 6063 has good ductility, 6063 T6 is harder, therefore, is less ductile.

Cutting

Can be cut by machine, flame cut or cut with a hacksaw or metal shears. The use of a proprietary sawing coolant or stick wax on the saw blade will help with lubrication to improve the finish of the cut and enables cutting at a lower speed to reduce heat generation.

Welding

6063 and 6063 T6 can be successfully welded by all conventional methods. Filler rod used should be of the same alloy, 5183, or AL4043. Thoroughly clean the base metal of any hydrocarbon contamination from oils or cutting solvents and naturally occurring aluminium oxide before welding. Any aluminium oxide remaining on the surface will block the penetration of the filler metal into the piece being welded. Aluminium oxide can be removed using mild solvents or etching solution and it is also recommended to use a degreaser to remove any hydrocarbon contamination prior to welding.Using a stainless-steel brush in one direction along the part to be welded can also remove aluminium oxide before welding; take care to not embed the oxide into the surface by brushing too hard. Preheating should not exceed 110°C and will reduce the risk of the weld cracking.

Moving the welding gun away from the weld puddle, rather than a more usual ‘pulling’ action will, reduce contamination, ensure better cleaning, and greatly improve the shielding gas coverage. The high thermal conductivity means that welds need to be performed ‘fast and hot’; a hotter amperage and voltage settings combined with higher weld travel speeds are required. If the weld process is too slow, the low melting point of aluminium can lead to ‘Burn-through’.

The closer the melting range of base metal and welding wire, the easier the weld process will be, so always select welding consumables with a similar melting point to the base metal

Annealing

The 6063-T6 grade is supplied in a pre-annealed form. To anneal 6063 grade aluminium during working, slowly heat to 413° C and maintain temperature for 2-3 hrs, followed by controlled cooling at 50°C per hour until reaching 260° C, then gently air cool

Hardening

6063 can be hardened through the process of artificial aging. T6 profiles have been pre-aged during the manufacturing process; to artificially age standard 6063 to T6 and T62 temper, hold the metal at a constant 177° C for 8 hours. Artificially age standard 6063 to T5 temper by holding at 182°C for 3 hours. Hardening can also be achieved by cold working.

Tempering

6063-T6 is supplied with category T6 temper that determines the aluminium has been solution heat treated and artificially aged during manufacture. To temper standard 6063, heat to 155°C -200° C and soak in water at room temperature for 1 hour per 25mm of thickness. Excessive soaking can cancel the benefits of protectively clad components and increase oxidation.

Corrosion resistance

6063 and 6063 T6 have very good corrosion resistance. This is enhanced by naturally occurring surface oxidation.

Forging

Hot forging can be done within the temperature range of 260° C to 510° C

Brazing

6063 can be successfully brazed by torch, dip, and furnace processes within the hot working temperature ranges of 260°C to 510°C. The filler metal will also require a lower melting temperature than the 6063 and the metal being joined.

Anodising

Aluminium is anodised by an electrochemical process comparable to galvanising mild steel and offers similar benefits. Satin anodised coatings increase resistance to corrosion, increase surface hardness and improves the appearance of the aluminium which is beneficial for some more decorative applications. Anodising does not increase the strength of the base metal but makes the surface more resistant to wear and corrosion. This anodised surface layer has lower thermal conductivity and coefficient of linear thermal expansion than the base metal which may lead to thermal stress cracking if exposed to temperatures exceeding 80°C.

Aluminium is anodised by submerging the piece in an acid solution and passing an electrical current through the electrolytic solution. The aluminium acts as the ‘anode’ (positive electrode) and the electrical current releases hydrogen at the cathode (negative electrode) and oxygen at the surface of the anode or aluminium piece. This creates a build-up of aluminium oxide far exceeding that created naturally. The acid slowly dissolves the surface aluminium oxide, this creates nanopores on the surface which enables the acid and the electrical current to penetrate through to the aluminium substrate. Sulfuric acid anodising is the most commonly used technique due to its good ability to produce an anodised surface of uniform, moderate thickness.

When welding, drilling, or machining anodised parts, it is worth remembering that the improved corrosion resistance will be lost on cut and weld lines. These areas will benefit from using a metal paint spray or surface treatment to reinstate corrosion protection at

Process Rating
Workability - Cold Average
Machinability Average
Weldability - Gas Excellent
Weldability - Arc Excellent
Weldability - Resistance Excellent
Brazability Excellent
Solderability Good

Forms available

We supply 6063 in both angle and box profile and grade 6063 T6 in flat, channel, tube, moulding, and wall board lining section.

We also supply 6063 T6 flat, angle, channel, and wall board lining section in an anodised satin finish.

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Grade 1050A H14#

1050A -H14 grade aluminium conforms to the BS EN 573-3 Standard.

1050A grade can be successfully used in general engineering, industrial and some marine environments- if using in more hostile marine environments, the use of grade 5251 may be more suitable due to its greater corrosion resistance.

The ‘H14’ relates to the sheet being strain/ work hardened to ‘half hard’ temper designation and is not annealed after rolling. 1050A H14 is a non heat treatable, rolled aluminium sheet for general sheet metal work where high mechanical properties are not required. It is particularly suitable for the following applications;

  • Boiler making
  • Kitchenware
  • Pharmaceutical industry
  • Security
  • Vehicle lining and panelling
  • Inspection covers
  • Chemical industry
  • Trailers
  • Building

Properties

Physical Property Value
Density 2700 Kg/m3
Melting Point 600°C
Modulus of Elasticity 69.5 GPa
Electrical Resistance 0.38 μΩm
Thermal Conductivity 200W/m.K
Thermal Expansion 23.5 μm/m-k
Mechanical Property Value
Yield Strength 214 N/mm²
Tensile Strength 195 N/mm²
Proof Stress 0.2% -
Shear Modulus 25.8 GPa
Hardness 83 Vickers - HV
Elongation  (in 200mm) 16% minimum

The chemical composition (% weight )

Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicon Copper
0.0-0.05 0.0-0.40 0.0-0.05 0.0-0.02 0.0-0.05
Zinc Titanium Other Aluminium  
0.0-0.10 0.0-0.05 0.0-0.03 Balance  

Machinability

1050-H14 has poor to fair machining qualities as it is a soft alloy. The H14, half hard temper does increase the hardness but compared to harder aluminium bases, this grade could not be described as free chipping

Formability

This grade of aluminium sheet has good cold formability; it is a very suitable grade when bending or spinning is required.

Ductility

This aluminium grade has high ductility.

Cutting

It is recommended to use aluminium cutting tools at a ‘reasonable’ speed to avoid the edge build up that can happen if running at low cutting speeds; the use of high-speed steel tools may be more suitable, particularly with the possible large rake angle on machines that cannot reach carbide cutting speeds.

Welding

1050-H14 is easy to weld using all standard welding techniques. When welding 1050 to itself or an alloy from the same subgroup, the recommended filler wire is 1100 or if welding to other alloys AL4043 is the recommended choice. A good weld will have the strength of up to 65Mpa. The high thermal conductivity of 1050A means welds are best completed in as ‘fast and hot’ process; preheating should not exceed 110°C and will help reduce the risk of the weld cracking. Moving the welding gun away from the weld puddle, rather than the conventional ‘pulling’ action will reduce contamination, ensure better cleaning, and greatly improve the shielding gas coverage. A hotter amperage and voltage settings combined with higher weld travel speeds are required to reduce the risk of ‘burn-through’.

Annealing

1050A-H14 can be successfully worked without the need for annealing. Due to the lack of suitability of this grade for heat treatment, and the amount of stretching and shrinkage possible while working before requiring annealing, most projects can be undertaken without the necessity to anneal.

Hardening

This grade is not suitable for heat treatment but can be work hardened. The H14 specification means that the metal has been supplied already work/strain hardened

Tempering

1050A-H14 is supplied in a half hard temper presentation.

Corrosion resistance

This grade has excellent corrosion resistant qualities.

Process Rating
Workability - Cold Excellent
Machinability Poor
Weldability - Gas Excellent
Weldability - Arc Excellent
Weldability - Resistance Excellent
Brazability Excellent
Solderability Excellent

Forms available

We supply 1050A H14 grade aluminium in mill finish sheet and stucco sheet.

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Grade 3003

3003 H224 grade conforms to the BS EN 573-3 2013 standard.

3003 grade aluminium is a general-purpose aluminium with moderate strength, very good workability, weldability, and corrosion resistance. This grade is usually rolled and extruded and can be cold worked but not hot forged, heat treated or used in casting. This grade is typically used in sheet metal applications such as roofing, gutters, vehicle, and trailer floors, protecting walls, slip resistant floor and stair protection.

The H224 designation refers to the type of temper. H224 shows the treadplate has been produced from a base grade 3003 with a H21 temper; this is strain/work hardened and partially annealed. Patterned or embossed sheet from this temper is assigned the standardised number H224 to aid the classification of processing through manufacture

  • Roofing
  • Gutters
  • Vehicles
  • Trailer floors
  • Stair protection
  • Wall protection
  • Anti-slip flooring

Properties

Physical Property Value
Density 2730 Kg/m3
Melting Point 655°C
Modulus of Elasticity 69.5 GPa
Electrical Resistance 0.34 μΩm
Thermal Conductivity 190W/m.K
Thermal Expansion 23.1 μm/m-k
Mechanical Property Value
Yield Strength 214 N/mm²
Tensile Strength 110 N/mm²
Proof Stress 0.2% 50 N/mm²
Shear Modulus 75 GPa
Hardness 29 Vickers - HV
Elongation (in 200mm) 25% minimum

The chemical composition (% weight )

Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicon
1.10-1.50 0.70 max 0.05 max 0.60 max
Copper Zinc Other Aluminium
0.0.05-0.20.10 0.10 max 0.15 max Balance

Machinability

This grade has average machinability.

Ductility

3003 grade aluminium has good ductility.

Cutting

This grade can be easily cut with shears or hand or machine saw.

Welding

3003 H224 has very good arc and oxy welding suitability with excellent results with resistance welding. When welding 3003 H224 to itself or other alloys in the same series, the recommended filler wire is 1100, alternatively, if welding to other alloys, AL4043 or AL 4047 are the recommended fillers. Pre-weld preheating should not exceed 110°C to help prevent weld cracking and welds should be performed with a higher amperage, and quick weld passes, to prevent burn-through.

Annealing

This grade can be successfully cold worked without the need for annealing, although, annealing after cold working is possible by heating the piece to 415°C until uniform temperature throughout and then air cooling.

Hardening

3003 grade aluminium is not suitable for hardening by heat treatment but can be hardened by cold working. 3003 is easy to cold work and form. The H224 temper designation shows the product has been strain hardened and partially annealed during production.

Tempering

This grade is supplied in a quarter hard temper presentation.

Corrosion resistance

Very good to excellent corrosion resistance.

Forging

Treadplate is suitable for cold forging, but not recommended for hot forging.

Brazability

This grade of aluminium sheet can be brazed with an appropriate filler; however, welding will produce a stronger joint.

Anodising

This grade of aluminium has good anodising qualities.

Process Rating
Workability - Cold Very good
Machinability Average
Weldability - Gas Very good
Weldability - Arc Very good
Weldability - Resistance Excellent
Formability - Cold Excellent
Anodising Qualities Rating
Protective Good
Colour Good
Bright Poor
Hard Good

Forms available

We supply 3003 H224 in mill finish ‘treadbrite’ sheet. This product is also known as Propeller Plate due to the distinctive raised surface detail that is similar to an aeroplane propeller profile.

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Grade 5754 H111

5754-H111 grade conforms to the BS EN 573-3 standard.

5754 grade aluminium is a magnesium alloy, it is classed as being ‘non heat treatable’ and is strengthened by cold working or strain hardening. The H111 designation of temper denotes that some work hardening is imparted by the shaping processes during manufacture, but less than required for a H11 temper.

5754 grade aluminium has excellent corrosion resistance making it an ideal grade for use in sea water and industrially polluted environments.

Typical uses for this 5-bar pattern sheet presentation of 5754 grade is; treadplate, applications in marine, gas, chemical and nuclear market sectors, shipbuilding, food processing equipment, Vehicle bodies. Walkways and floors on boats

  • Treadplate
  • Marine
  • Gas
  • Chemical and nuclear
  • Shipbuilding
  • Vehicle bodies
  • Walkways
  • Floor

Properties

Physical Property Value
Density 2660 Kg/m3
Melting Point 600°C
Modulus of Elasticity 68 GPa
Electrical Resistance 0.49 μΩm
Thermal Conductivity 147W/m.K
Thermal Expansion 24 μm/m-k
Mechanical Property Value
Yield Strength -
Tensile Strength 245-290 N/mm²
Proof Stress 0.2% 185-245 N/mm²
Shear Modulus 68 GPa
Hardness -
Elongation  (in 200mm) 10-15% minimum

The chemical composition (% weight )

Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicon Copper
0.0-0.50 0.0-0.40 2.60-3.60 0.0-0.40 0.0-0.10
Zinc Titaniumr Chromium Other Aluminium
0.0-0.20 0.0-0.15 0.0=0.30 0.0-0.15 Balance

Machinability

5754-H111 has less than average machinability.

Ductility

This grade has poor to average ductility.

Cutting

5754 can be cut with easily with standard hand or machine saw techniques.

Welding

This product is suitable for gas, arc and resistance welding. The higher magnesium content of the base metal requires a filler alloy with more magnesium than the base metal to ensure weld strength and similar corrosion resistance at the weld; 5356 is the most commonly selected filler metal/rod for this grade.

Pre-weld preheating should not exceed 110°C to help prevent weld cracking stress corrosion cracking.

Due to the high thermal conductivity of aluminium, welds should be performed with a higher amperage, and quick weld passes, to prevent ‘burn through’; this is particularly a risk when working with sheet products.

Annealing

5754-H111 can be successfully worked without the need for annealing. Due to the lack of suitability of this grade for heat treatment, and the amount of stretching and shrinkage possible with cold working processes, most projects can be undertaken without the necessity to anneal.

Hardening

This grade of sheet is not suitable for heat hardening. It is excellent for cold working. It is a fully bendable grade that has been developed to not split or crack during folding.

Tempering

5754-H111 has been strain/ work hardened during the sheet production process. It is defined as being quarter hard.

Corrosion resistance

This grade is highly resistant to seawater and industrial chemicals, due to this high level of corrosion resistance it is sometimes referred to as ‘marine grade’.

Forging

Very good results are possible with cold forging, hot forging is not appropriate for this product.

Brazing

This product has poor brazing qualities.

Anodising

Grade 5754 aluminium has excellent suitability for all types of anodising and powder coating processes. It can also be polished to provide a bright, mill or dull finish as required to suit your project.

Process Rating
Workability - Cold Excellent
Machinability Average
Weldability - Gas Very good
Weldability - Arc Very good
Weldability - Resistance Excellent
Brazability Poor
Formability - Cold Very good
Anodising Qualities Rating
Protective Good
Colour Good
Bright Good
Hard Good

Forms available

We supply 5754-H111 grade in mill finish tread plate with a 5-bar pattern finish to ensure grip and good aesthetics.

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Grade 5994 H145

Telescopic tube is made from 5449 grade aluminium and is supplied with a H145 temper. This aluminium alloy has medium strength levels and very good corrosion resistance, even in marine environments. This grade of aluminium is non heat treatable. Telescopic tubes can be used singly but are most often used in multiples of varying sizes to create repeatedly adjustable length tubes for a range of applications. Aluminium telescopic tubing is particularly suitable for adjustable table and bar counter legs, shower curtain rails, supports, railings, camera tripods and reflecting telescope construction.

Telescopic tubes can be fixed into position by using tube adjusters, these are manufactured in durable nylon and are easily adjusted with a simple ‘thumb screw’ mechanism.

  • Table legs
  • Curtain rails
  • Support
  • Railings
  • Camera tripods
  • Telescopes

Properties

Physical Property Value
Density 2800 Kg/m3
Melting Point 650°C
Modulus of Elasticity 69 GPa
Electrical Resistance -
Thermal Conductivity -
Thermal Expansion 23 μm/m-k
Mechanical Property Value
Yield Strength -
Tensile Strength -
Proof Stress 0.2% -
Shear Modulus 26 GPa
Hardness -
Elongation  (in 200mm) 17% max

The chemical composition (% weight )

Manganese Iron Magnesium Silicon Copper
0.6-1.10 0.70 max 1.60-2.60 0.40 max 0.30 max
Zinc Titanium Chromium Other Aluminium
0.30 max 0.10max 0.30max 0.15 max Balance

Machinability

Can be machined if required, although the profile of this product would not necessarily require machining.

Ductility

Has reasonable ductility and is suitable for bending.

Cutting

This product can be cut by using hand or machine cutting techniques.

Welding

Telescopic tubes can be welded by gas, arc or resistance welding techniques with very good to excellent results.

Annealing

As this grade is not suitable for heat treatment, it can be successfully worked without the need for annealing.

Hardening

Cold working or strain hardening are suitable processes for this grade of aluminium, however, the profile presentation would usually not require hardening processes to be applied.

Tempering

This grade of telescopic tube is supplied as a H145 temper presentation.

Corrosion resistance

EN AW 5449 has excellent corrosion resistance, including within seawater and harsh marine environments.

Forging

5449A can be forged by pressing and stamping techniques, although care should be taken to not compromise the precision diameter as this will affect the smooth glide of the tube lengths when elongating or shortening the fixings.

Brazing

This product is suitable for brazing using the appropriate consumables.

Process Rating
Machinability Average
Weldability - Gas Good
Weldability - Arc Very good
Weldability - Resistance Very good
Formability - Cold Good
Anodising Qualities Rating
Protective Good
Colour Good
Bright Average
Hard Good

Forms available

We supply 5754-H111 grade in mill finish tread plate with a 5-bar pattern finish to ensure grip and good aesthetics.

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